Inguinal Hernia – symptoms, complications, treatment
What is it?
Hernia is an externalization of mobile organs (usually intestines) in areas of poor muscular endurance of the abdominal wall, wrapped by the peritoneum and covered by skin. The most common sites are the groin, femoral, umbilical, diaphragmatic.
Causes of inguinal hernia
- obesity, multiple pregnancy, sudden decreases in weight;
- chronic cough, muscle overload with growth of abdominal pressure;
- aging with tonic and muscle elasticity loss.
Symptoms of inguinal hernia
- swelling which occurred after exercise in the groin;
- local pain accentuated by a prolonged standing or physical effort of any kind;
- swelling increases during cough and effort.
- swelling can’t be reduced or maintained in the abdominal cavity – irreducibly;
- incarceration – is the formation of adhesions between the contents of the hernia and hernia sac – high risk of very serious complications;
- strangulation – causes intestinal obstruction with vomiting, blocked intestinal transit, marked malaise, very serious situation.
- peritonitis – inflammation propagation of the herniated organ;
- “disqualification of home right”- occurs in people who delay a lot the surgery and herniated organs are very difficult to be placed back in the abdomen;
- foreign corps, hernia tumors, hernia tuberculosis;
- in plus, any hernia that becomes red-purple, hot, painful need to get your attention and you should contact your doctor.
Treatment of inguinal hernia
1. Conservative treatment is indicated in patients who have major contraindications for surgery (very old age, association with serious diseases, malignancies). This involves wearing bandages for hernia who oppose viscera output in the hernia sac.
2. Surgical treatment is most recommended in all situations and should not be delayed because the hernia may increase in volume and there can occur any of the complications listed above.
The classic operation consists of skin incision, hernia sac isolation, reducing the content, sac resection at the base with strengthening the wall where hernia occurred. As inguinal path recovery technique there are 3 techniques depending on the repositioning of the spermatic cord: prefunicular, anatomic and retrofunicular.
The surgery is performed under anesthesia. In large defects or recurrent hernias there are used to strengthen the inguinal canal walls grafts, aponeurotic plasty, prosthetic materials.
Laparoscopic surgery can be performed with minimal incisions.