Detached retina – symptoms, treatment
Retina (tunica nervosa) constitutes the inner layer of the eyeball. It is a very thin membrane, perfectly transparent, which describes 10 layers (pigment epithelium, the layer of cones and rods, external limiting membrane, the external granular layer, the plexiform external layer, granular internal layer , internal plexiform layer, ganglion cell layer, optical layer, internal limit).
The back of the retina is only able to receive impressions of light, through its sensory cells (visual rods cells and visual cone cells).
Retinal detachment may be primary (idiopathic – no known cause) or secondary. Primary retinal detachment occurs outside of an eye disease and secondary retinal detachment occurs within ocular diseases, like trauma (contusion or perforation), tumors (choroid tumors, tumors of the retina), choroid and retinal inflammation (acute diffuse chorioretinitis), bleeding recurrence of retinal phlebitis, proliferating retina (diabetic retinopathy).
Detached retina symptoms
In terms of clinical, patient accuse a decrease of vision as a veil more or less dense in a sector of the visual field (mainly in the infero-nasal).
Subsequently, the veil progresses, extending up making vision to decrease gradually. In the remaining visual field objects can be perceived deformed.
The onset is often preceded by vision disorders (feeling of flies flying) or phosphenes (sensations of sparks).
Investigations in detached retina
In terms of investigations, will be performed the visual field (there is an amputation of visual field in the retinal detachment), ophthalmoscopic examination (it can be seen in the corresponding detachment field the gray retina, curled with eye movements, with vessels that seem to be darker color on its surface, unable to distinguish arteries from veins) and ultrasound. On closer examination it is noted the presence of one or more horseshoe-shaped ruptures in the detached retina field. Through this rupture is insinuating vitreous fluid (gelatinous substance, transparent, with stiffness,variable viscosity and elasticity, which fills the space between the lens and retina) between the two retinal foil.
Detached retina treatment
Treatment is surgical and is aimed at blocking the retinal rupture. You can choose the following therapeutic procedures: thermal or cryogenic coagulation transscleral, methods of shortening of the eyeball (scleral pleating, cerclage of the eyeball), endocular laser treatment or injections in the vitreous with silicone, artificial vitreous or gas.
The prognosis is reserved.