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Urine analysis – values ​​and interpretation

These are normal laboratory data and interpretation, urine examination, urine summary:

  • Density: 1015-1022. Urinary density depends on fluid intake and diuresis;
  • Urinary pH: 5.7 to 7.4. At lower values ​pH ​is acidic and may occur in dietary meat, exercise, diabetes, TB, IRC when favors precipitation of urate crystals. At higher values pH is alkaline, appears in lacto-vegetarian diet, urinary tract infections, metabolic alkalosis, vomiting, diarrhea and favors precipitation of calcium phosphate and amoniaco-magnesium crystals;
  • Urinary urea: 20-30g/24h declines in chronic kidney disease;
  • Urinary creatinine: 1-2g/24h declines in chronic kidney disease;
  • Urinary urobilinogen: 2-4 mg/24 h, increases in hepatocellular and hemolytic jaundice;
  • Catecholamines increase only in pheochromocytoma;
  • Urinary calcium increases in tubular disease;
  • Urinary magnesium is increased in tubulopathy;
  • Potassium: 50-100 mEq/24h;
  • Urinary sodium: 130-160 mEq/24h;
  • Lead increases in lead poisoning;
  • Urinary proteins <100-150mg/24h, physiological proteinuria (effort, fever, prolonged standing <0.5 g/24 h), massive proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome> 3.5 g/24h;
  • Urinary glucose is absent. It occurs when blood sugar is over 180 mg% (in diabetes, kidney diabetes);
  • Ketone corpus are absent. Are present in diabetic ketoacidosis, ketosis of starvation, vomiting, alcohol;
  • Urinary lipids are present in nephrotic syndrome;
  • Urinary bile pigments: direct bilirubin appears in cholestatic and hepatocellular jaundice, hemoglobine in intravascular hemolysis, myoglobin in muscle crush syndrome;
  • The urinary sediment is normal if there are: some flat epithelial cells, red blood cells in urine 1-2 on the field, 1-2 on field leukocytes in urine, 1-3 hyaline cylinders, rare crystals;
  • The Addis-Hamburger sediment: <1000 red blood cells in urine per minute, less than 2,000 leukocytes in urine per minute, less than 3 cylinders / minute;

Hematuria = high values of red blood cells in urine. High values of white blood cells usually means urinary infections.

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