Urinary changes in bladder and kidney diseases
Possible disorders of micturition (urinary problems):
- Difficult urination (dysuria) appears in the initial phase of urination in prostatitis and prostatic adenoma, in terminal phase for cystitis and during whole urination in neurogenic bladder. Along with dysuria it can be met painful urination in the same conditions;
- Urination with interruption of flow occurs in the presence of stones in the bladder and incomplete urination with incomplete emptying bladder sensation may occur in enlarged prostate, stricture of the urethra;
- Inability to urinate causes bladder globe with retention of urine and can occur in the urethra obstruction or stenosis, diabetes, spinal injuries or after birth;
- Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine, constant or intermittent and is found more frequently in multiparous, after stroke, in diabetic neuropathy, lesions of the bladder sphincter, or bladder with overflow.
Modification of urine:
1. Quantitative the urine accumulated during a day more than 2 L is defined as polyuria. May be influenced by alcohol or diuretics, but if it’s permanent it can mean diabetes insipidus, diabetes or chronic renal failure compensated by polyuria.
A diuresis (urine output) less than 500 ml per day is called oliguria, and less than 100 ml per 24 hours means anuria. In this case can be an anuria due to obstruction to a solitary kidney, acute renal failure or chronic renal failure in uremia stage.
2. Changed appearance of the urine:
- Cloudy urine after emission appears in urinary infections with pus, urine with blood – hematuria, urine with fat – in nephrotic syndrome;
- Urine become colorless (loses characteristic appearance of straw) in cases of physiological or pathological polyuria;
- Red urine if it is cloudy, contains blood – hematuria;
- If red urine is clear, it contains pigments of hemoglobin or porphyrins, myoglobin (in muscle crush syndrome – the trauma), food pigments or pigment can be a caused of drug (Algocalmin, rifampicin);
- Yellow-brown urine – brown urine may be due to loading with bile pigments (in various forms of jaundice) or drug use that contain picric acid;
- If urine is dark at emission is the symptom of melanoma;
- Green-blue urine is not a concern – it appears as an effect of blue methylene disinfectant;
- Milky urine containing lymph is due to obstruction of renal lymphatics with rupture and can occur in filariosis;
- Foamy urine is due to important proteinuria.