Symptoms of kidney diseases
Kidney disease may give local symptoms (such as kidney pain appeared in the lower back given by distension of kidney capsule) or general symptoms due to renal functional collapse affecting other organs (eg. plasma unfiltering increases blood pressure in the vessels – the cause of renal hypertension).
Among the more frequent symptoms of kidney disease there are:
- Pain as a symptom of kidney disease can have several locations:
1. Lumbar pain (kidney pain) may be of low intensity in glomerulonephritis, renal tuberculosis (bilateral), kidney stones with or without upstream blockage with accumulation of urine (hydronephrosis) or intense pain (constant pain in renal infarction, pionephrosis, colicky – sudden, intense, which occurs most frequently in the migration of a kidney stone).
2. In the inferior portion of the abdomen (hypogastrium) it may appear pain due to bladder distention (visible bulging abdomen) that occurs in acute retention of urine – bladder globe. Feeling of tension disappears after the emission of urine.
Can also occur vesical tenesmus (short pain with sensation to urinate) which can appear in cystitis.
Also, in prostatitis, prostate adenoma or prostate cancer there may appear pain radiating into the sacrum or genitals. In urethritis (eg gonorrhea) or migration of urinary calculi (kidney stones) burning sensations may occur during urination.
- Urinary disorders and appearance of urine are varied but specific to illnesses. For more see changes in kidney and urinary bladder diseases;
- Renal edema appear as swollen feet, swollen handling, swollen eyelids and face and occur especially in the morning. Renal edema is soft, fluffy, painless;
- Fever occurs in infections and inflammations as acute pyelonephritis (when is accompanied by kidney pain), prostatitis (accompanied by urinary disorders), kidney cancer;
- Renal hypertension may occur in polycystic kidney disease, renal artery stenosis, renal artery atheromatosis, chronic pyelonephritis, renal failure, impure nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome, glomerulonephritis;
- By overloading the heart due to volume loading there may occur heart failure, severe cardiac arrhythmias due to ionic imbalances (especially potassium levels) that normally are regulated by the kidneys;
- In advanced stages of chronic kidney disease can occur pericarditis, pleurisy and ascites;
- Anemia usually occurs in chronic renal failure with decreased production of erythropoietin that modulates erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells). Anemia may be accompanied by fatigue;
- Fatigue and weight loss may occur in renal cancer or chronic renal failure;
- Increased nitrogen compounds that kidney normally eliminates, can lead to gastric irritation with nausea and vomiting even gastrointestinal bleeding or brain damage with mixed neuropathy and / or encephalopathy (appears the phenomenon of flapping tremor after hand extension which at return the hand tremor has a specific beat);
- In general, the skin is pale due to infections, either due to specific anemia of chronic renal failure. May appear dirty-gray discoloration of the skin in chronic renal failure, with maculopapular formations), with pruritus (itching) and scratching lesions, dry skin with scaling, with petechiae, bruising, bleeding (due to vascular and coagulation dysfunction);
- In chronic renal failure may occur stomatitis, fried tongue;
- Also in chronic renal failure (end-stage chronic kidney disease) can occur muscle atrophy, joint and bone pain with fractures and deformities, abnormal calcium deposits (eye, lung).