Diet and exercise in the treatment of diabetes
Diet plays an essential role in the treatment and control of diabetes complications. This should be accompanied by exercise and quitting alcohol and smoking. Coffee consumption is permitted in small quantities and diluted.
The diet is mandatory and is determined together with the doctor. He knows the formula for calculating caloric needs, tailored to each patient and also the principles and content of food (carbohydrates, fat, fiber, protein, sodium, water). The target is to obtain and maintain an ideal weight and a blood glucose and lipid profile (normalization of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL).
Carbohydrates (sugars) will represent 55% of total daily calories without any restrictions on vegetables. Milk, yogurt, rice, potatoes, pasta, cereals, cottage cheese will be weighed before consumption and will comply with medical instructions.
In contrast there are absolutely prohibited: any sweets (candy, chocolate, cookies, crackers), fruits very rich in carbohydrates (grapes, juicy pears, dates, raisins, figs), ice cream, sweet drinks (a 2 liter bottle of soda contains about 250 grams of carbohydrates!). Natural juices are allowed in limited amounts.
There are required (especially for diabetic type 1) 5-6 meals at fixed hours, 15-20% of total carbohydrates in the morning, 10% in mid morning and afternoon, 25-30% at lunch and 30-40% between dinner-bed (maximum 20% in type II diabetes).
Lipids are recommended not to exceed 30% of calories and if dyslipidemia is present no more than 20%. It is recommended to get 10% of lipids from food, the rest being filled with fat oils (olive, pumpkin-natural).
Proteins will represent 12% of caloric intake and should be provided from animal origin at over 50% (meat, eggs, cheese).
It is recommended a diet with dietary fiber foods due to its beneficial effects, fruits, vegetables, grains, beans, peas.
Instead of sugar you should use : natural sweetener (fructose, sorbitol and xylitol) and synthetic sweetener (saccharin, aspartame).
Sodium intake (salt) is recommended at 3-5 g/day, much less in heart failure, high blood pressure.
Exercise is extremely important because it lowers blood sugar. Is especially indicated for the patient with type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. In the case of type 1 diabetes, before exercise, is indicated a blood glucose determination. To avoid a severe hypoglycemia there is useful to ingest an additional amount of carbohydrate before and during exercise and to reduce insulin dose by 4-6 units before exercise. If blood glucose exceeds 250%, the effort is postponed because it grows even more the glucose blood level.