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Testicles diseases and infertility causes

There are a number of testicles diseases that affect the quality and quantity of spermatogenesis and cause infertility. Here are listed some of the most frequently:

Varicoceles veins plexus1. Varicoceles can cause a third of all cases of male infertility. It is caused by retrograde leakage of blood with progressive dilatation, often palpable,  of the venous plexus. Occurs most commonly on the left (85%). Unilateral varicocele increases blood flow and temperature for both testis which is the cause for poor quality of sperm and infertility. Surgical resection results improve fertility in half of the men with the best results (70% pregnancy rate) obtained for men who have preoperatively over 10 million sperms per millilitre .

2. Germ Cell Aplasia (existence of Sertoli cells only) has a positive family history with consecutive azoospermia

3. Unilaterally Cryptorchidism, even when is corrected before puberty is associated with abnormal sperm for many individuals.

Cryptorchidism4. Immobile Cilia Syndrome is characterized by immobility or poor airway ciliary motility and sperm also. Kartagener syndrome is associated with situs inversus, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis.

Acquired Testicular Defects

5. Viral Orchitis: The responsible viruses include: mumps virus, echovirus, choriomeningitis virus and some arboviruses. Testicle size and function may return to normal or may undergo atrophy. Semen analysis returned to normal in three-quarters of men with unilateral involvement and only one-third of men with bilaterally orchitis. Atrophy is usually perceptible within 1 to 6 months after orchitis is solved.

6. Trauma is the second common cause of secondary atrophy of the testicles.

7. The destruction by irradiation: doses higher than 200 mGy (20 rad) lead to the destruction of spermatogonia. Oligospermia or azoospermia appear after doses of 800 mGy (80 rad). Fractionated irradiation may have a more profound effect than a single dose irradiation and complete recovery of sperm density levels may require 5 years.

8. Certain medications as: guanethidine, some digitalis, spironolactone and ketoconazole, drugs – marijuana, heroin or methadone, alcohol, when is consumed for prolonged periods causes a decreased level of testosterone. Antineoplastic and chemotherapeutic agents routinely interfere with spermatogenesis.

9. Environmental Risk factors include chemicals known as nematicide, cadmium and lead, microwaves and ultrasound.

Testicular abnormalities associated with systemic diseases

10. In Liver Cirrhosis, low testosterone production is independently by direct toxic effects of ethanol. Testicular atrophy and gynecomastia are present in approximately half of men with cirrhosis and many of these men are impotent. Liver transplant cancel cirrhosis effects on the pituitary-testicular.

11. Chronic renal failure, about half of men with renal dialysis are suffering from impotence and reduced libido, but kidney transplant can lead to normal the testicular function.

12. Men with sickle-cell disease present an affected secondary sexual development and testicular atrophy is present in one-third. Protein-calorie malnutrition, Hodgkin’s disease and chemotherapy, amyloidosis affect the testicle function.

13. Similar hormonal changes occur after surgery, myocardial infarction and severe burns.

14. Men with AIDS may have decrease testosterone as immunodeficiency virus can infect the testicles.

15. Temporarily decrease in sperm density may occur after acute febrile illness.

16. Infertility in men with celiac disease is associated with a typical resistance to androgen hormone.

17. Neurological diseases associated with low testicular function include myotonic dystrophy, muscle atrophy and paraplegia.

18. The obstruction can be unilateral or bilateral, congenital or acquired. Obstructional azoospermia at the epididymal level also occurs in association with chronic infections of the paranasal sinuses and lung infections.

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