Like all neoplasms, cervical cancer causes are unknown. However, the organ accessibility and epidemiological studies on population groups with high statistical validity showed a number of factors favoring the occurrence of disease:
• women’s sexual activity – beginning at young age, especially in adolescence, multiple sexual partners, the first sexual act at a very young age increase the risk of 8 to 14 times;
• the sexual partner has an important role, was seen in the increased risk of disease in women with one partner, but he has multiple partners. Reduction of disease risk was observed among women married to circumcised men (especially Hebrew);
• Smoking increases the risk with 3-4 times;
• socio-economic status shows higher incidence in the poor, both due to limitations of intimate hygiene and the diet, women who developed cervical cancer had low serum levels of vitamin A, carotene and folic acid.
The sexual factor in the etiology is obvious in cervical neoplasia, some authors consider it a “true sexually transmitted disease.” This assertion is supported by recent research in the etiology of infectious factors criminalizing cervical cancer, although cause and effect relationship is difficult to prove.
• herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2);
• Human papilloma virus (HPV);
There have been recent hypothesis that HSV-2 is the “initiator” which acts as a mutagen, while HPV is the “promoter” lesion appearance. The biological role in oncogenesis of cervical HPV is highlighted by the fact that it causes persistent infection of metaplastic epithelium in the external cervix.
Important: the problem of the etiology of cervical cancer remains an open chapter and is far from being properly and fully elucidated until now.