Breast Cancer – Risk Factors + Video
• chest region irradiation, especially before 30 years;
• food diet rich in protein, fat and fine candy;
• UV exposure of breasts especially for women with benign diffuse changes;
• breast trauma, especially small and multiple could be risk factors;
• Alcohol was included recently among risk factors. In exchange for coffee and smoking there are not yet conclusive evidence to prove their role in breast cancer although there are opinions that criminalize;
• stress, whatever its nature is a risk factor for breast cancer and a factor of aggravation of its evolution;
• Oral contraceptives – are considered by most authors risk factors, especially when administered before the first pregnancy carried to term or long term administration (more than 10 years);
• Viral factors – some viruses such as RNA viruses B and C contributing to the occurrence of these cancers, but assumptions must be checked;
• family behavior involving attitudes towards many economic events, social, and to the diets;
• prolonged exposure to electromagnetic waves was demonstrated as a risk factor by researchers at the NC1.
Endogenous factors (related to the host):
• age – breast cancer has a maximum frequency in age groups 45-49 years (premenopausal) and a second peak between 60 and 65 (postmenopausal);
• early menarche (first menstruation) before age 12 and late menopause after 55 years increases the risk of breast cancer;
• no delivery or first pregnancy after age 30 years;
• breastfeeding has an important role. Normal breastfeeding is a protective factor as lack of breastfeeding is a risk factor;
• Obesity, especially in postmenopausal;
• precancerous states (border, precursors), such as typical and atypical hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, dystrophy (fibrocystic disease) and lobular cancer in situ are lesions that may progress to invasive cancer;
• Benign tumors of the mammary gland (fibroadenoma, adenoma juvenile) juvenile papillomatosis, cysts with intra or perichyst proliferation;
• radial scar is by some authors, a border lesion to be known;
• immune deficits could be factors to promote cancer in general and of the breast in particular;
• endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and excess estrogen;
In breast cancer an important role play the growth factors such as mammary derived growth factor (“mammary derived growth factor 1”) (MDGF1) whici has been identified in breast cancers, suggesting autocrine or paracrine changes occurring in malignant cells.
In breast epithelial cells with malignant transformation potential MDGF1 receptors are found. To this we add some protooncogene that can become oncogenic and normal mammary epithelial cells can be transformed into cancer, such as CSIS, c-HER (neu), c-myc. Suppressor genes RB, NM23, p53, in contrast, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells.
According to some authors descendants of mothers with breast cancer have twice the risk of making the same type of cancer especially when breast cancer was bilateral. In addition, authors who believe that if there are more relatives in the family of grade I and II with breast cancer, the risk for the direct descendants, continue to rise. Without neglecting the genetic predisposition, we believe that this risk is much lower than is estimated in some data. The existence of so-called breast cancer families, although supported by some authors is made great doubt others.