Acute and Chronic Sinusitis – Symptoms and Complications

sinusitisAcute and Chronic Sinusitis has as its main cause infections that in the first stage are usually viral, then can be complicated by bacterial overgrowth.

Acute bacterial sinusitis has as its main symptoms

  • Rhinorrhea with purulent matter and / or congested with nose sinus pain or pressure sensation sinus. The location of these symptoms depends on the affected sinus;

  • In maxillary sinusitis pain is perceived in the cheek or maxilla to the root of the teeth. In 50% of cases of acute maxillary sinusitis fever also appears as a symptom.

  • In ethmoid sinusitis the pain has interorbital establishment at the corner of the eye.

  • In frontal sinusitis pain is felt above the eyebrow.

  • Acute sphenoid sinusitis pain is localized in the upper portion of the face or behind the eye, radiating behind the head (occiput).

The pain and pressure in the sinuses are aggravated from bending forward or when the person is in the dorsal decubitus.

Chronic Sinusitis – Causes

Chronic sinusitis has at its base an inflammation of the sinuses and lasts 3 months or more it is characterized by the symptoms of sinus inflammation that persists for 3 months or more. The cause of chronic sinusitis is mucociliary dysfunction start which ensures the drainage and cleaning the sinuses, which in turn is due to, most likely, to repeated sinus infections than a persistent infection.

Chronic Sinusitis – Symptoms

  1. In the morning, the patient with sinusitis shows nasal congestion with the feeling of tension in the sinuses, this is constantly.

  2. Fever is rarely present only if there was a superimposed infection.

  3. Nasal secretions can be changed. Many patients also signal a change in nasal secretions (which are thick and green).

Complications of acute sinusitis and chronic sinusitis

  1. The most common complication of sinusitis is orbital cellulitis.

Orbital cellulitis usually occurs as a complication of ethmoid sinusitis. Transmission of infection is in orbit through the lamina papyracea (a very thin blade). Symptoms present in such a complication of sinusitis are fever, swelling and redness of the orbit and conjunctiva irritation, eye protrusion, even limiting orbital movements. Orbital cellulitis may be accompanied or be confused with an orbital abscess that can be drained, so it is recommended CT and MRI as a method of investigation.

  • The treatment of cellulite orbiter is done with antibiotics with broad spectrum, began immediately. If in 24 hours do not appear improvements it is recommended sinus drainage.

      2.     The frontal abscess subperiosteal (also called Pot’s puffy tumor) is another complication (extra cranial) frontal sinusitis, this time.

  • This form of abscess presents as swelling pills that appear on the forehead and it hurts. Abscess is treated by drainage of the sinus, followed by intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks.

3.       Intracranial complications can occur as acute or chronic sinusitis: epidural abscess, meningitis, subdural empyema, brain abscess, dural venous thrombophlebitis is mainly due to frontal sinusitis or sphenoid. Acute sphenoid sinusitis may be complicated by cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis.

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