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Right Ventricular Infarction

Once thought to be rare, right ventricular infarction is known to occur at approximately 30% of patients with myocardial infarction with Q wave. In most patients, the amount of right ventricular myocardium affected by infarction is small and therefore, signs or symptoms of right ventricle failure appear rarely. Mild right ventricular dysfunction can be demonstrated […]


March 15, 2015, Myocardial Infarction
Indications For Angiography

–        Femoral arterial puncture is performed if INR <1.8; –        In case of radial puncture can be accepted an INR <2.2; –        Femoral arterial access is faster, easier technically but presents several complications; –        Radial arterial access is more technically difficult, requires a greater experience of an interventionist but has few complications; –        Making the […]


February 11, 2015, CAD
Cardiovascular Exercise Testing

Cardiovascular exercise testing is an investigation used to assess cardiac function. It may reveal the existence of coronary heart disease, unapparent on an electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest. During exercise the need for oxygen of the myocardium (heart muscle) is increased. If there is a narrowing of the coronary arteries (heart vessels) during exercise the increased […]


February 10, 2015, CAD
Left Cardiac Catheterization

Access to the left heart is usually retrograde, using arterial approach (femoral, radial or brachial). Left heart catheterization can be achieved using trans-septal approach with the passage of the catheter in the right atrium to the left atrium through a patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or trans-septal puncture. “Pigtail” catheter is […]


February 8, 2015, CAD
The Technique of Performing Cardiac Catheterization

Pre-procedural measures Cardiac catheterization should be performed or supervised only by experienced operators in properly equipped laboratories. Before carrying out any interventional procedure the patient should be informed on the method of execution, the risks and benefits of the procedure. The written consent of the patient must be obtained and documented according to protocols. All […]


February 6, 2015, CAD
Coronary Angiography – minimally invasive diagnostic technique

Coronary angiography is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique for heart disease, but for which, there should be an indication. Like any invasive investigation coronary angiography has some risks. In this context, there are some preliminary examinations performed by cardiology specialists, which give the indication for coronary angiography. In this way the patient is protected regarding certain […]


February 6, 2015, CAD
Mechanism of Pain in Angina Pectoris

Angina can be defined in pathophysiological terms as a pain with cardiac origins, resulting from O2 deficit at the myocardial level. Atherosclerosis is by affecting and reducing the diameter of the coronary arteries, the most common cause of myocardial ischemia. A patient with atherosclerotic lesion (stenosis) which reduces at least 50% arterial diameter has significantly […]


February 3, 2015, Stable Angina
Stable Angina Pectoris – Lifestyle Changes

General principles of treatment of stable angina pectoris are represented by the need to reduce the frequency of myocardial ischemia and angina manifestations in order to increase quality of life, as well as preventive measures to control the cardiovascular risk factors and halt the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. These objectives can be achieved through the […]


February 1, 2015, Stable Angina
Recovery after angioplasty

With or without stent, angioplasty involves a period of short-term hospitalization. Although most patients who undergo angioplasty can resume their normal daily activities after about a week of rest, the recovery implies the observance of important steps for regaining physical vigor and avoids complications. The patient’s condition after angioplasty Angioplasty is a procedure commonly used to […]


October 20, 2014, CAD
Prinzmetal Angina Pectoris

Angina pectoris is a clinical syndrome in which the patient describes retrosternal, paroxysmal pain, with variable intensity. Pain is actually an expression of biological realities, namely the temporary deprivation of oxygen to the myocardium. Prinzmetal angina pectoris (vasospastic angina or angina spontaneously, as it is called) is a special form of angina where ischemia is […]


July 30, 2014, CAD